The PROTECT study is a multi-center prospective cohort study of standardized medical therapy (mesalamine or corticosteroids) in newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis in children and adolescents. It is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The study is conducted in collaboration with Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA) using its Pediatric Research Organization for Kids with Intestinal Inflammatory Diseases (PRO-KIIDS) Network.